The entire extent to which plastics and plasticisers are floating in the oceans and seas is not visible to the naked eye because a great deal floats below the surface in the form of microparticles. Plastics are not biodegradable, but they are gradually broken down into smaller and smaller particles in the ocean through wave action and intense irradiation from sunlight. Marine organisms confuse these microplastics with plankton; this means that plastics and the toxins they contain are increasingly entering the food chain, irretrievably and irreversibly.
The discovery of the so-called Great Pacific Garbage Patch made it clear that millions of tons of plastic garbage are drifting in the oceans. Since the discovery of high concentrations of microplastics in other gyres as well, it can no longer be denied that a new ecosystem has emerged in which artificial and natural aspects are inseparably connected. Collaborative projects will be presented that identify unnatural noise in the oceans as a further environmental issue, especially the effect of noise on microscopic organisms such as plankton, for example.
Noise Aquarium — a project which seeks to raise attention about the current loss of marine biodiversity introduces a collection of accurate 3D models as a resource for scientific and artistic research. Another artistic project Aquatocene — Subaquatic Quest for Serenity will present the efforts to make recordings using hydrophones in different locations around the globe. Underwater noise has an impact on a great number of marine life forms, which depend on the sub-aquatic sonic environment to survive. Despite the availability of popular aquatic sounds, there is hardly any awareness that the underwater soundscape is as rich as the one heard by terrestrial creatures above water.
The symposium presents aesthetically powerful art projects that seek to reach out to and inform a global audience about plastic pollution and noise pollution in the oceans and will demonstrate how current modes of scientific visualisation are able to address underestimated and invisible effects on our marine ecologies, with the aim to foster positive changes in consumer habits.
In she received her Ph. He works in manifold ways with concepts for future landscapes and organisms, such as post-evolutionary life forms. Through the specific adoption of object, installation, and video he developed a dynamic scenario of future landscapes and organisms.
In this way he creates an area of conflict between promise and failure in a potential future. Both the visual implementation and their linguistic form can be recognised here as the essential artistic strategies which he uses as his own interface between the worlds of scientific research and pseudo-scientific fiction. He was a lecturer at the Institute of Visual Arts, Faculty of Architecture, Technical University Braunschweig, and from to visiting professor of sculpture at the Fachhochschule Kunst Arnstadt.
He is the recipient of grants from the Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes, Kunstfonds e. Pinar Yoldas , Ph. Her work develops within biological sciences and digital technologies through architectural installations, kinetic sculpture, sound, video and drawing with a focus on post-humanism, eco-nihilism, anthropocene and feminist technoscience.
She holds a Ph. The context for her ideas and concepts is often realized in collaboration with other authors artists, scientists, humanists, makers, hackers… , and through interdisciplinary and informal integration in her work.
She is a member of the Theremidi orchestra and the Hackteria Network and in was on the organising team and a participant of HackteriaLab Bangalore. In she participated at HacteriaLab Yogyakarta. In she organised Interactivos? Thomas Schwaha , Ph. He studied biology at the University of Vienna focusing on zoology where he obtained his PhD with a dissertation on soft-body morphological aspects of bryozoans, tiny colonial invertebrates. A disadvantage of the latter approach is that Cre insertion disrupts the function of the endogenous gene, and thus it is useful only when heterozygous inactivation of that gene does not result in any phenotype.
For this reason each Cre transgenic line must be rigorously tested to demonstrate that it shows the expected pattern of Cre recombination.
This analysis has been made easier by the generation of Cre-reporter lines where Cre-mediated recombination activates expression of a reporter transgene such as beta-galactosidase or GFP. Cremediated excision of the STOP cassette activates expression of the reporter in a pattern mirroring the pattern of expression of Cre recombinase.
Signal Box. The PCR screening procedure used a target gene-specific oligonucleotide that is not present on the targeting vector and an oligonucleotide corresponding to the Neo or other selectable marker cassette. Flying Plaza. In addition, the excision of the loxP-flanked sequences from the genome of a cell does not simultaneously make this cell deficient for the targeted gene product. Polymorphisms within the innate immune system result in altered efficiency of Treg induction, and so may lead to increased susceptibility to allergies, autoimmunity, or IBD Th1-mediated destruction of b cells in the pancreas and allergies, both within and outside Europe Stene and Nafstad
The most widely used Cre reporter lines have been generated by using a knock-in approach to introduce reporter constructs under the control of the ubiquitously expressed endogenous ROSA26 locus Mao et al. Other existing Cre-reporter lines have been produced by selection of single-copy reporter transgenes driven by ubiquitous promoters. A useful modification of this approach is the generation of Cre-reporter lines that allow the Cremediated switching between two different reporter genes, where a lacZ reporter is expressed before recombination and is excised by Cre to turn on expression of alkaline phosphatase as a second reporter that marks Cre-expressing cells Lobe et al.
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However, the practical appli- Making Gene-Modified Mice 21 cation of this technology is not always straightforward and may prove a very complicated task for the inexperienced user. Several considerations should be taken into account for the successful outcome of conditional targeting experiments. Cre-mediated recombination is a stochastic event and does not happen at the same time in all cells where Cre is expressed. The probability of Cre recombination occurring in a given cell depends on the levels of Cre recombinase in this particular cell, and thus the efficiency of Cre recombination is affected by the timing of Cre transcription initiation and the strength of the promoter used.
In addition, the excision of the loxP-flanked sequences from the genome of a cell does not simultaneously make this cell deficient for the targeted gene product. Cells usually contain certain levels of mRNA and protein that have been produced by the target gene before excision, and these levels must be diminished before the cell becomes functionally deficient for the targeted gene product.
The delay between Cre-mediated excision of the floxed alleles and the disappearance of the protein produced by the target gene depends on the half-lives of the mRNA and protein and may vary considerably between different genes Fig. This delay may be par- Fig. Delay of the Cre effect in conditional gene targeting. The excision of the loxP-flanked gene does not simultaneously make a cell deficient in the gene product. The delay between Cre-mediated excision of the floxed allele and the disappearance of the gene product depend on the half-lives of its mRNA and protein 22 M.
Pasparakis ticularly important in cases where rapidly renewed dynamic cell populations such as lymphocytes are targeted, and should be taken into consideration for the interpretation of the results obtained from such experiments Pasparakis et al. The efficiency of Cre-mediated recombination achieved in a particular experiment may depend also on the effect of the target-gene inactivation in cell viability or proliferation capacity. If inactivation of a gene leads to death or growth disadvantage of the cells, then selection against the cells having undergone Cre recombination will result in reduced recombination efficiency in this population Pasparakis et al.
A recently developed technology allows the quick production of mice carrying multiple modifications into their genomes and promises to reduce the time required for mouse experiments by overcoming the need for multiple breedings. This method takes advantage of the observation that when ES cells are injected into tetraploid blastocysts, which are produced by electrofusion of two-cell-stage embryos, the resulting embryos are derived almost exclusively from the diploid ES cells while the extraembryonic tissues arise largely from the tetraploid host cells Nagy et al.
The generation of ES cell lines from mice carry- Making Gene-Modified Mice 23 ing one or more modifications in their genome further facilitates such experiments by reducing the number of sequential targetings required for the production of ES cells carrying all required genomic modifications Seibler et al.
The main disadvantage of this method is the low efficiency of the production of ES mice that requires the injection of ES cells into a large number of tetraploid blastocysts in order to obtain sufficient numbers of experimental animals. Studies in gene-modified mice have made a major contribution to our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing mammalian embryonic development and physiology.
Furthermore, this technology has allowed the generation of mouse models of numerous human genetic diseases, thus providing an in vivo experimental system for the study of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The application and further improvement of this technology in combination with current developments facilitating large-scale genome sequencing and annotation and the high-throughput analysis of gene expression and protein complex formation and function will undoubtedly play a central role in biomedical research in the years to come, hopefully leading to the better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and to new, more effective therapeutic approaches to human disease.
Use to dissociate development-dependent and -independent phenotypes. Moore 2. Identifying Gene Function.
Behavioral Assays. General Points. Open Field Test. Righting Reflex. Auditory Reflex. Tail Suspension Test. Additional Phenotypic Analysis Concluding Remarks. These genes were selected for inclusion in the database based on their potential as tractable drug targets, and belong to gene families such as G-protein coupled receptors, channels, kinases, and proteases. The company has generated approximately lines of knockout mice to date and has generated comprehensive 28 M.
Moore phenotypic data for of these targets, utilizing an extensive, integrated analysis program to assess the function and potential pharmaceutical relevance of these genes. The phenotypic data for these targets were provided to pharmaceutical and biotechnology customers in DeltaBase, a relational Oracle-based database with a userfriendly, web browser-enabled interface.
The body of gene function information available in Deltagen's database provides an advantage to drug discovery efforts by reducing the time required for target validation. Deltagen believes that its knockout mouse lines and related phenotypic information have several advantages over other knockout mice and phenotypic information that may be available in the public literature.
Most importantly, Deltagen offers uniformity and a consistent analysis platform, including genetic background, across all its mouse lines, as each mouse line was handled in the same manner and underwent the same battery of phenotypic testing. Furthermore, selected targets were moved forward to advanced phenotyping that included models in inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis RA , inflammatory bowel disease IBD , and acute and chronic models for contact dermatitis. These gene knockout mice are a useful tool in defining the function and disease relevance of mammalian genes for the purposes of discovering and validating novel drug targets.
Many of the drugs available or in development are directed at affecting a currently known biological target. Deltagen provides gene knockout mice that help identify novel drug targets that relate to a particular disease. Deltagen knockout pipeline 1. Target selection 2. Construct generation 3. Probe generation 4. Tissue culture 5.