Recall the concept of the proximate other. It raises Polycarp to a superhuman agent of the divine, and granting him and other pious martyrs the status of angels while on earth.
This story was undoubtedly constructed to not just be read but to be felt and hopefully to save the souls of those moved by its massive cosmic considerations. Annotated Bibliography. Cobb, L. New York: Columbia University Press, This book is especially helpful for contextualizing the gendered elements of the early Christian martyr stories. It specifically analyzes the Martyrdom of Polycarp as an example of a conflict between opposites.
It provides a lot of information on social identity theory, the establishment of individual identity through group membership, the appeal of being part of a group provides self-esteem and feelings of superiority , and the tendency for groups to negatively perceive others outside of the group. It also gives background information on the history of Roman persecution and the Christian perception of the Romans in light of that.
Conway, Colleen M. Oxford: Oxford University Press, The male is the active penetrator and the female is the passive penetrated body. A real man is impenetrable. It describes typical characteristics of the Greco-Roman manly man as exhibiting self-control, master over the body and sinful passions, and the importance of spectacle and display in constructing individual gendered identities. It talks about the virtue of the successful orator who is gifted in persuasion traditionally through an excellent education in rhetoric. Also, it addresses characteristics of the flawed female.
She is characterized as contrary to the male ideal.
These women have no control over their emotions or sexual passions. This article focuses mostly on the female heroine, which is not of much use to me for this paper. However it does provide some very relevant information such as the element of humiliation experienced by the criminal in the arena, who is put to death in front of a large body of spectators. She talks about the voice of the author in relation to his presentation of the martyr account, professing his own authority. She also discusses the stoic silence usually described in the martyr accounts and the self-control displayed through the endurance of pain.
Instead of victims, the martyrs are empowered. This was really just used to find quotes for the depiction of Judas in John as influenced, possibly controlled by Satan. Jurgensmeyer, Mark. Berkeley: University of California Press, I really wish I could have used this book more because it has some really interesting ideas. I used the basic idea of Cosmic Warfare which Koscheski believes is relevant for the study of ancient Christian martyrdom although its focus is on contemporary acts of religious violence.
This article views martyrdom through the lens of Greek philosophy. I wish I could have used more of it. It contextualizes the martyrdom accounts, by providing relevant information about the time period, who the readers or really the listeners were likely to be, and goes through various martyr stories to connect them through the concept of a fearless death.
Koscheski, Jonathan. He provides a justification for viewing the Roman Empire as the evil enemy threatening the survival of Christianity and explains the common association of Rome with Satan. This study crosses the boundaries between ancient history and the study of early Christianity, seeing Christian representation in the context of the Greco-Roman world.
She draws parallels with suffering heroines in Greek novels and in martyr acts and examines representations in medical and philosophical texts. History of Western Philosophy. Bertrand Russell. Alister McGrath. Robert Royal. The New Science of Politics. Eric Voegelin. On Greek Religion.
snakwalldeha.ga: The Suffering Self: Pain and Narrative Representation in the Early Christian Era (): Judith Perkins: Books. Editorial Reviews. Review. "The sweep of Perkins's assemblage of ancient texts, and especially The Suffering Self: Pain and Narrative Representation in the Early Christian Era 1st Edition, Kindle Edition. by.
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