On a standard questionnaire , hostile sexism is measured by responses to statements such as "Women are too easily offended," "Women seek special favors under guise of equality," and "Women seek power by gaining control over men. In a study of Americans, and a study of more than 6, New Zealanders, both varieties of sexism were strongly associated with opposition to abortion.
They are fixed and rigid, which helps promote predictability and coherence to the rules of society among individuals within the group. They are often as hostile to each other as they are to other religions. Sign In Don't have an account? Although the term fundamentalism in popular usage usually refers derogatorily to any fringe religious group, or to extremist ethnic movements with only nominally religious motivations, the term does have a more precise denotation. Your email address will not be published. Addressed are such key themes as the role of the sacred text within fundamentalism; how beliefs and practices that many find difficult to comprehend actually fit into coherent meaning systems; and how these meaning systems help meet individuals' needs for purpose, value, and self-worth.
In the latter sample, "30 percent of the left-right difference in abortion stance was explained by sexism," according to researchers Gordon Hodson and Cara MacInnis. But Yanshu Huang's aforementioned study found the type of sexism mattered considerably. Analyzing data on more than 6, New Zealanders who filled out surveys in and again in , the researchers found benevolent sexism, but not the hostile variety, was linked to negative attitudes toward abortion one year later. This association held even after taking into account participants' gender, religious identification, and political orientation.
To learn more, the researchers conducted a follow-up study featuring undergraduate psychology students three-quarters of whom were women. Like members of the larger study, they filled out questionnaires measuring sexism and describing their attitudes toward abortion. In addition, they responded to seven statements designed to reflect their attitudes toward motherhood. These included "A woman is not a 'real woman' until she becomes a mother" and "A woman who doesn't want children is unnatural.
The researchers found sexism "was uniquely positively associated with beliefs about the importance of motherhood for women. In turn, beliefs about the importance of motherhood were negatively associated with support for abortion. This suggests that if you view motherhood as the pre-ordained role of women, having an abortion is, in effect, defying the natural order—or, if you are religious, the law of God.
But it's hard to argue with the researchers' conclusion that they "reflect the inherently political nature of gender-role attitudes, and, perhaps more importantly, how the idealization of motherhood ultimately undermines women's rights. For many, it seems, the belief women should be "cherished and protected" effectively means they should be freed from the bother of making their own decisions—especially regarding abortion.
A new survey of major abortion providers shows just how sparse abortion access is in rural America. Changes for abortion, contraception, and more top the agenda with Republicans in the majority in Congress and many state legislatures. A common talking point among anti-abortion activists is debunked. New research shows whites are less supportive of government benefits if they believe the recipients will primarily be people of color.
Like Donald Trump, researchers are still obsessing about the defeated presidential candidate. Unlike him, they are coming to some interesting new conclusions. News in Brief. In the United States , Michael J. Mattias Gardell claims that while older US racist groups are Christian and patriotic Christian Identity , there is a younger generation of white supremacists who have rejected both Christianity and mainstream right-wing movements.
For instance, the Archbishop of Wales has criticized "atheistic fundamentalism" broadly    and said "Any kind of fundamentalism, be it Biblical, atheistic or Islamic, is dangerous". In The New Inquisition , Robert Anton Wilson lampoons the members of skeptical organizations such as the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal as fundamentalist materialists, alleging that they dogmatically dismiss any evidence that conflicts with materialism as hallucination or fraud. In France, the imposition of restrictions on the wearing of headscarves in state-run schools has been labeled "secular fundamentalism".
The term "fundamentalism" is sometimes applied to signify a counter-cultural fidelity to a principle or set of principles, as in the pejorative term " market fundamentalism ", used to imply exaggerated religious-like faith in the ability of unfettered laissez-faire or free-market capitalist economic views or policies to solve economic and social problems. According to economist John Quiggin , the standard features of "economic fundamentalist rhetoric" are "dogmatic" assertions and the claim that anyone who holds contrary views is not a real economist.
Retired professor in religious studies Roderick Hindery lists positive qualities attributed to political, economic, or other forms of cultural fundamentalism, including "vitality, enthusiasm, willingness to back up words with actions, and the avoidance of facile compromise" as well as negative aspects such as psychological attitudes, [ which? In December , the Anglican Archbishop of Wales Barry Morgan criticized what he referred to as "atheistic fundamentalism", claiming that it advocated that religion has no substance and "that faith has no value and is superstitious nonsense.
The Psychology of Religious Fundamentalism and millions of other books are available for Amazon Kindle. The Psychology of Religious Fundamentalism 1st Edition. Ralph W. Hood, Jr., is a social psychologist with a long-standing interest in the psychology of religion. This is one of the best books on fundamentalism I've found--not dependent on simplistic explanations that reduce most practicing monotheists to sterotypes.
Others have countered that some of these attacks on Christmas are urban legends , not all schools do nativity plays because they choose to perform other traditional plays like A Christmas Carol or The Snow Queen and, because of rising tensions between various religions, opening up public spaces to alternate displays rather than the Nativity scene is an attempt to keep government religion-neutral. Sociologist of religion Tex Sample asserts that it is a mistake to refer to a Muslim , Jewish , or Christian fundamentalist. Rather, a fundamentalist's fundamentalism is their primary concern, over and above other denominational or faith considerations.
In order to carry out the fundamentalist program in practice, one would need a perfect understanding of the ancient language of the original text, if indeed the true text can be discerned from among variants. Furthermore, human beings are the ones who transmit this understanding between generations.
Even if one wanted to follow the literal word of God, the need for people first to understand that word necessitates human interpretation. Through that process human fallibility is inextricably mixed into the very meaning of the divine word.
As a result, it is impossible to follow the indisputable word of God; one can only achieve a human understanding of God's will. Howard Thurman was interviewed in the late s for a BBC feature on religion. He told the interviewer:. I say that creeds, dogmas, and theologies are inventions of the mind. It is the nature of the mind to make sense out of experience, to reduce the conglomerates of experience to units of comprehension which we call principles, or ideologies, or concepts.
Religious experience is dynamic, fluid, effervescent, yeasty. But the mind can't handle these so it has to imprison religious experience in some way, get it bottled up. Then, when the experience quiets down, the mind draws a bead on it and extracts concepts, notions, dogmas, so that religious experience can make sense to the mind. Meanwhile religious experience goes on experiencing, so that by the time I get my dogma stated so that I can think about it, the religious experience becomes an object of thought. Influential criticisms of fundamentalism include James Barr 's books on Christian fundamentalism and Bassam Tibi 's analysis of Islamic fundamentalism.
Political usage of the term "fundamentalism" has also been criticized. According to Judith Nagata, a professor of Asia Research Institute in the National University of Singapore , "The Afghan mujahiddin , locked in combat with the Soviet enemy in the s, could be praised as 'freedom fighters' by their American backers at the time, while the present Taliban, viewed, among other things, as protectors of American enemy Osama bin Laden, are unequivocally 'fundamentalist'. A study at the University of Edinburgh found that of its six measured dimensions of religiosity, "lower intelligence is most associated with higher levels of fundamentalism.
The Associated Press ' AP Stylebook recommends that the term fundamentalist not be used for any group that does not apply the term to itself. Many scholars have adopted a similar position. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Fundamentalism disambiguation. See also: Buddhism and violence. Main article: Christian fundamentalism. Main article: Islamic fundamentalism. Main article: Jewish fundamentalism. This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. February See also: Scientism. American Anthropologist.
Once considered exclusively a matter of religion, theology, or scriptural correctness, use of the term fundamentalism has recently undergone metaphorical expansion into other domains [ International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. Late Abrahamic reunion? Religious fundamentalism negatively predicts dual Abrahamic group categorization among Muslims and Christians.
The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. Journal of Social Issues. Archived from the original PDF on August 17, Retrieved April 6, Fundamentalism and Evangelicals.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. New keywords: a revised vocabulary of culture and society. Cambridge, Massachusetts : Blackwell Publishing. Archived from the original PDF on September 10, Retrieved July 27, Originally restricted to debates within evangelical 'gospel-based' Protestantism, it is now employed to refer to any person or group that is characterized as unbending, rigorous, intolerant, and militant. The term has two usages, the prior one a positive self-description, which then developed into the later derogatory usage that is now widespread.
Archived from the original on August 27, Retrieved November 4, Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture , pp Over scholarly books have cited Marsden's work, according to Google Scholar. Retrieved August 15, Marsden, "Fundamentalism and American Culture", p. Fundamentalism: Prophecy and Protest in an Age of Globalization. Cambridge University Press. The Globe and Mail.
Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original PDF on August 2, Retrieved The Africanists. Retrieved November 24, Hundreds of years later, Islam again comes to the Sahel, this time with an unstoppable mission mentality and the way paved by money from Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Pakistan. Foreigners, and also Malians who received scholarships to study in Saudi Arabia, introduce this strict form of Islam, and condemn the sufi's [ sic ]. Retrieved December 9, Retrieved October 22, Lustik Fall Archived from the original on October 21, Archived from the original on 15 July Retrieved 1 August Retrieved May 25,