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View access options below. You previously purchased this article through ReadCube. Institutional Login. Log in to Wiley Online Library. Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out. Abstract Several dimensions of urban form and spatial urban development are discussed in the light of the main criteria of a sustainable development.
Citing Literature. Volume 3 , Issue 3 Pages Related Information. Real infrastructure projects in urban centers, especially in developed countries, are complicated design endeavours and usually require the involvement of multiple stakeholders.
The Costa Rica News. The framework proposed does not explicitly consider the underlying complexities that shape urban realities or the processes of urban planning. What is important to note is that from among these visions, two key approaches to infrastructure projects are clear: 1 the technological integration seen in visions such as that of smart-cities , and 2 the social and cultural integration seen in visions such as that of experiential-cities. CO 2 emissions per unit of GDP. The smaller the probability of the grey relation is the closer to the ideal alternative [ 54 ].
From the initial imagined design proposal to the final realized form, many limitations emerge and changes are inevitable . Additionally, we have tried to distinguish two types of infrastructure projects that are apparent in modern cities: 1 major infrastructure projects, which are focused on augmenting the level of services and capacity of cities including bridges, major highways, ports, etc.
There is no clear boundary that separates these two categories. Figure 3 presents the two axes described. Since this research paper constitutes a first step in the exploration of blended infrastructure projects, the proposed sample for the case study is focused on light projects that fall within the imagined design pole, of the level of realization axis.
These light and imaged projects show more freedom when compared to the limitations imposed by realized projects, and include a small number of complex design parameters.
Major infrastructure projects often undergo many political discussions and tensions that charge them with many connotations—relating to modes of production, means of economy, political aims or political power. Light and imagined infrastructure projects are not yet heavily charged connotationally—their political, environmental, social, and cultural values are still in the process of being defined. Our sampling hypothesis states that: these projects are a fertile starting point for exploring blended infrastructure projects, including their design approaches and their distinction from other smart or cultural design projects this selection is highlighted in dark grey in Figure 3.
The framework proposed does not explicitly consider the underlying complexities that shape urban realities or the processes of urban planning. It also does not put into question the value of the project.
In order to mitigate and to provide meaningful assessment, the sampling has to consider projects with shared underlying value. For this paper, the selected projects had to have an explicit focus on sustainability—in order to assume that these projects have a collective positive value of bringing sustainability in the city. Although the aim of the framework is to assess the intentions of the designs or designers , these intentions are not always clear in large projects.
The use of the framework to assess major built projects then raises many questions around urban assemblages: relating to value, power and conflicts. However, in order to be able to test the applicability of the proposed mapping tool in the context of constructed infrastructure projects, we will also attempt in the discussion section of the paper to analyze a group of realized infrastructure projects in Montreal that vary in their nature—from light to major selection highlighted in light grey in Figure 3. The paper highlights how the mapping of these Montreal projects, which do not have similar values embedded within them, may be problematic since it leads to the emergence of larger value and ethical questions.
Why are competitions an exemplary source for studying light and imagined infrastructure projects in the city? Competitions can be viewed as epistemological devices that allow us to comparatively study interdisciplinary issues related to contemporary design projects—including infrastructure projects.
Competitions display the best of what designers can produce, and their proposals are filtered through a comparative apparatus regulated by a collective and qualitative judgment process. This collective process provides a means for the observation and identification of design reorientations as representing the best of what architects offer.
Historically, competitions have acted as both controversial and experimental events in the design disciplines [23—26]. Additionally, sustainable design interests many fields of social and cultural studies [27,28]. An understanding of how designers design for sustainability through the study of competition projects has already unveiled a series of tensions between the cultural and technical dimensions of their work .
This paper focuses on and analyses the winning projects of one specific case study competition, the second international design competition organized by the research initiative called CoLLaboratoire. Carmela Cucuzzella. This initiative, primarily a knowledge dissemination platform, focuses on understanding how design in the public realm can embody sustainable urban, professional and community practices in the long term.
This initiative is motivated by the growing limitations in current practices for the sustainable built environment.
Increasingly, technical solutions to sustainability, which are based on highly structured principles that largely seek ever more eco-efficiency [28,29] , have revealed several limitations due to the normative nature of their analyses tools, their fragmented project analysis processes, and their lack of awareness to the crucial social and cultural questions [29,30]. We can already identify three paradoxes resulting from these types of sustainable design practices:. It may be that some of the predominant international discourses and approaches have to be reconsidered in order to re-position humans at the center of climate change issues, to move away from demonstrative ecological add-ons, and rather towards critical integration [19, 29, 32].
CoLLaboratoire aims to address these paradoxes. The projects planned through the CoLLaboratoire platform, are designed and built with the intent of heightening climate change awareness. Through this platform, connections between academics, community members, designers, artists and different local and regional organizations are made with the aim of improving the quality of the built environment and the quality of the experience in available infrastructure.
Through the design of installations in the public realm, CoLLaboratoire seeks to stimulate the collective intelligence  of Montreal by recovering memories of place and environment. All urban interventions are planned for Sherbrooke Street, an iconic street which continues to be a vital artery for the city, a vibrant venue for art and design initiatives and projects and that has a historic significance for artists and designers .
These small-scale urban interventions serve as elements of a path to a sustainable, resilient future. Resilience, as it relates to the city, does not only mean to be able to cope, survive and adapt, in extreme situations, floods, storms, attacks, fire, but it also refers to the capacity for individuals, communities, institutions, and infrastructure in other words both soft and hard structures within a city to prosper and to flourish in their environments. Public awareness of natural systems and resilient urban infrastructure can be fostered both during the design phase and during the use of the built public artwork.
This may also have the added benefit of invigorating life in the city while addressing the pressing problems of today. The CoLLaboratoire platform is founded on these principles. Jean-Pierre Chupin . The competition was open to students and graduates of less than 5 years in the fields of architecture, design, landscape and urban design. Rather than focusing on the re design of the bus shelter, this competition aimed to stimulate discussion of the importance of public spaces around transit infrastructure and the role of these spaces in encouraging the use of public transit.
Four 4 sites were selected for this competition, each standing for different typologies of bus stop sites in the east of Montreal—varying in context, vegetation cover, proximity to services and housing different models of bus shelters from the oldest to the newest models in the city. The competition brief presented these sites as those that have the potential to deeply integrate sustainable urban interventions while invigorating the communities in interactive, poetic, critical and meaningful ways.
Competitors were encouraged to consider design strategies that integrate technologies, consider renewable energy sources, create playful experiences for users of all ages, and develop climate change awareness, and that can provide innovative adaptations across seasons as well as throughout the day. Competitors were asked to submit two main deliverables: 1 a design that is engaging on a social, environmental, and cultural level, and 2 at least one or more written design principles that could be adopted for future implementation for comparable sites around the city .
These design requirements are a good representation of blended infrastructure projects identified in the literature. The competition received widespread interest with more than two hundred teams registered from thirty 30 countries.
Finally, a total of ninety-six 96 projects were submitted by seventy-two 72 teams from more than twenty 20 countries the full submissions are available on the Canadian Competition Catalogue . The selection of the winning entries was completed by a multidisciplinary jury composed of seven 7 members which included academics in architecture, design and geography, research chairs, practitioners and representatives from collaborating organizations.
The judgment criteria focused on clarity and appropriateness, coherence and strength, quality, ability to design around the proposed written principle s , viability across the four 4 seasons, the needs of the community, environmental design imperatives, and universal access.
The submissions varied significantly in their design focus and explored environmental, cultural, social, urban and architectural questions through various modes including placemaking, information transfer, conservation of nature, water management, sensory experiences, flexibility and many others.
The submissions exhibited the four 4 key polarities described in Figure 4. From the ninety-six 96 projects received, the research team was able to extract over two hundred and fifty-three design principles. Like the designs, the principles presented a variety of ideas and concepts. Five 5 main categories of principles were identified see Figure 5.
The most common of which were community development, interactivity, adaptation to climate and urban context, and environmental sustainability.