In addition, the use of a recyclable catalyst significantly improves the quality of the products BioDiesel and glycerin. For detailed inquiries, please contact us at sales bid-bioenergy.
The production of BioDiesel from raw materials such as waste oils and fats, as well as virgin vegetable oils, has established itself as a trend-setting path. Nevertheless, there is still enormous potential in untapped raw material to be further exploited. Used cooking oils are the most important recycling material for BioDiesel production.
The largest quantities are generated in industry and commerce. The number of collection companies that specialize in the removal of these substances is increasing worldwide. In addition, the collection of used cooking oils from households offers great potential, as the recycling rate in this sector is still low. The use of animal fats is closely related to the production of BioDiesel in Europe.
Due to the problem of bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE , also known as mad cow disease, the use of animal by-products, which are legally defined as risk materials, is linked to compliance with official requirements and operational controls. The basis for processing these so-called Category 1 and 2 risk fats is the BDI Multi-Feedstock process, which has been approved by the EU as an official waste disposal technology.
Wherever edible fats and oils are used - for example in the food industry, canteens, restaurants or supermarkets - trap grease can be separated from the contaminated wastewater as a valuable raw material. For this purpose, it is necessary to provide a grease trap before discharging into the sewer system.
Thanks to BDI Multi-Feedstock technology, the trap grease obtained is ideally suited for the production of high-quality BioDiesel and, at the same time, a waste and energy problem for many municipalities can be solved. Another advantage is that problems in the sewage system, which can be attributed to improper disposal, are avoided. More information can be found in this article.
We are the benchmark in the engineering and construction of industrial BioDiesel plants. After the outlet flow was steady, the back-pressure regulator Swagelok Co. The pressure at the high-pressure pumps and back-pressure inlet were monitored by two pressure gauges Swagelok Co. In addition, the 0.
The relief valve Swagelok Co. Once the system pressure was constant, which took approximately 3 hours until the system reached its steady state, the biodiesel products were sampled in triplicate at 15 min intervals and analyzed for ester content following the EN standard method. The subscripts e and o indicate that parameter for ethanol and palm oil, respectively. The density of hydrated ethanol A known amount of the biodiesel sample and an internal standard, methyl heptadecanoate, were diluted with n -heptane before injection and standardized following the EN method.
The biodiesel sample that was obtained from the optimal conditions was further analyzed for its fuel properties by the American Standard of Testing Materials ASTM testing methods, including the kinematic viscosity D , density D , higher heating value D , flash point D93 , distillation characteristic D and cetane index D The analytical results are shown in Table 1.
Used oil is mostly sold to local biodiesel producers including private and public companies for approximately 0. The water content in both RPO and UPO samples was very low because the samples were settled several days before sampling the top layer. Thus, because of the small amount of water and the supercritical reaction conditions, the effects of water content can be ignored in this study. Kinematic viscosity and density of UPO are slightly higher than those of RPO as a result of hydrolytic and polymerization reactions. The GC-MS results conformed to our previous work. A slow reaction rate of UFAs with supercritical alcohols has been reported in the literature.
Because the UFAs have low reactivity, the high operating temperature requires enhancing the rate of reaction in the catalytic-free process. The assistive techniques that keep the catalyst-free concept, such as the addition of co-solvents, the two-step or the Saka-Dadan process 14 and the dual-reactor process, 27 could be employed to enhance the FAEE content. The comparison of the results with da Silva et al. It was found that the total FAEE content observed in this work is higher than that reported by da Silva et al. The operating pressure insignificantly affects the tendency of both RPO and UPO curves in Figure 3 because it influences reactivity of SCE less than temperature does, since the reactivity of SCE is dominated by its acidity, which reversely depends on the degree of hydrogen bonding.
The study of the proton nuclear magnetic resonance NMR chemical shift of ethanol demonstrated that, below the critical pressure, hydrogen bonding of ethanol suddenly drops when temperature reaches the critical temperature. Above the critical pressure of ethanol, hydrogen bonding gradually decreases with temperature, but rises sharply when pressure exceeds the critical pressure. Because the critical point of vegetable oil and ethanol mixture is reduced when the ethanol:oil molar ratio increased, the FAEE content is enhanced at constant temperature and pressure.
Consequently, in the continuous flow system, the lowered density requires a large reactor volume for a sufficient residence time to achieve complete conversion. Because the FFA in UPO performs as an acid catalyst as mentioned in the effect of temperature section, the rate of reaction is reduced following addition of excess ethanol. The results found in this work are higher than that reported by Gonzalez et al. The effects of residence time are illustrated in Figures 5a and b , respectively.
The analytical results and the European biodiesel specification are shown in Table 3. It is clear that the ester content of both samples lies outside the limits of the European specification. Although the ester content of According to the high-temperature GC results, the other components in RPO and UPO biodiesel obtained from optimal conditions were the unreacted glycerides, mainly diglycerides and monoglycerides.
The viscosity of RPO biodiesel is also out of the range for the European specification, whilst the viscosity of UPO biodiesel lies within the specification range. A viscosity range of 3.
However, ranges of viscosity in the US and Indian specifications are between 1. In addition, the limit of viscosity range is not specified in the Brazilian specification, but it needs to be reported. The viscosity of blended fuel can be adjusted by the proportion of biodiesel and petro-diesel, as demonstrated in the literature. The density, the cetane index and the flash point of both biodiesel samples are within the limited values of EN specification.
The heating value is not specified in the standard of biodiesel for vehicles, but its minimum limit is Thus, the UPO biodiesel is not appropriate for use as a heating oil due to its relatively low heating value.
Biodiesel samples derived from both RPO and UPO could be used as an alternative fuel after slight improvement in their viscosity characteristics. Not only the FFA content in used cooking oil is important, but also the amount of UFAs in considering the operating conditions, especially temperature, for biodiesel production under the SCE process. Due to differences in degree of unsaturation, biodiesel production under the SCE process reached equilibrium at 30 and 60 min of reaction time for UPO and RPO, respectively.
According to the fuel properties of biodiesels, both RPO and UPO biodiesels obtained from the SCE process should be blended with petro-diesel fuel before use in vehicles. Chhetri, A. Sawangkeaw, R.
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